A VIEW OF WORLDWIDE SHIPBUILDING REVEALS SIGNS OF REVIVAL IN SOME SECTORS
No matter which set of shipbuilding tables or statistics one studies, there is no escaping the fact that Japan continues to be the world's leading shipbuilding nation, supplying over 50 percent of the world's tonnage. This has been achieved, moreover, in spite of an average cutback in capacity of about 35 percent, and in labor by 50 percent, compared with its peak-time figure.
In looking at Japan, one cannot help but notice her near neighbor, South Korea, which, in direct contrast with other shipbuilding nations, is actually increasing her shipbuilding capacity with the opening of the Daewoo shipyard.
Both countries will be discussed in more detail later.
Elsewhere in the world there has been a general cutting back of s h i p b u i l d i n g capacity, the pruning in some countries being quite severe, particularly in Europe, with Sweden — only a few years ago the world's No. 2—being hit particularly hard. However, offshore work, which doesn't usually appear in shipbuilding returns, has helped to soften the blow for some yards, and naval orders have helped others. Even though there is much talk, and some evidence, that the recession is nearing its close, it has not halted the shipyard cutbacks.
It is understood that in Spain which, according to Lloyd's Register Shipbuilding Returns for the quarter ended December 31, 1980, is in third place in terms of total order book, talks are being held with a view to reducing facilities by 35 percent and manpower by 20 percent. It seems more likely, however, that the reductions will be 20 percent and 10 percent, respectively, because of the hardship such drastic cutbacks would mean to areas — Cadiz, for example—where there is so little other industry. Although that country's total order book has increased of late, more than 50 percent of this is now under construction. France, Germany, Italy, Norway, and the United Kingdom are all in similar situations though, in effect, the latter two countries have suffered a reduction in their total order books.
The country that has incurred the biggest fall in total order book is Brazil which, nevertheless, remains in fourth position closely followed by the United States. Like the U.S., the Brazilian order book is based on home orders, but Brazil does have a Shipbuilding Plan.
JAPAN As stated earlier, Japan in spite of severe cutbacks both in terms of facilities and labor force, including the closure of 10 yards, is still supplying half the world's tonnage. The cutbacks average about 35 percent because the seven majors cut back by 40 percent, while yards not capable of building ships over 10,000 grt cut back by 15 percent. Yards between these two criteria cut back by an average of about 28 percent.
Another interesting point is that the average production of Japanese shipbuilders was limited by an i n d u s t r i a l c a r t e l, formed on August 1, 1979, to 39 percent of each yard's peak production figure, in terms of compensated gross registered tonnage.
The idea behind this cartel was to help overcome the serious slump affecting Japanese yards, and it was to be effective until the end of March this year. However, as far back as April 1980 this cartel was extended by a year, and the production ceiling for fiscal 1981 increased by 30 percent over the previous year, i.e., 51 percent of the peak production.
In addition to the cartel which, by reducing available capacity, proved to be the most effective in cutting down the suicidal competition between yards that resulted in below-cost ships' prices.
Japanese shipbuilders were also cushioned against the real effect of the depression by a relatively large number of domestic contracts in 1979. The 35th government- sponsored shipbuilding program for fiscal 1979 comprised 32 ships totaling over 1.6 million grt, and was about the same as the aggregate of the previous four programs. About 100 other vessels amounting to 1.2 million grt were ordered by Japanese owners.
Japan has, in recent months, come under scathing attack from European shipbuilding nations — she did in the mid-1970s — who are alarmed at her success rate.
But Japan has truthfully replied that it has taken major steps to reduce its capacity . . . unlike a number of other nations. The reason behind the European complaints is obviously the number of orders that have been going to Japan from that part of the world. Japan has also been successful in obtaining orders from U.S.-based owners. This was illustrated r e c e n t l y by Hitachi Zosen who received contracts for two Panamax bulk carriers from subsidiaries of the Xylas Group, also two further Panamax bulk carriers and one 132,000-dwt bulk carrier from subsidiaries of the National Shipping and Trading Corporation Group. While Panamax bulkers appear to be a good buy for foreign owners, this does not seem to be the case for domestic operators who, allegedly, are re-assessing their plans for these vessels because of rising prices. Could it be that for them the cartel has been too effective?
SOUTH KOREA Some six years or so ago, the president of the Japan Ship Export Association said that because of the low wage rates in Korea, Japan could not compete with that country's prices when it came to "no-frills" ships. He felt t h a t Japan's strength and future lay in building high-technology, sophisticated vessels leaving the ordinary type of ships for the Koreans to build. The expected rapid expansion of the Korean shipbuilding industry did not occur for various reasons, although its yards were successful in obtaining some very good orders, notably Hyundai's 28 ships built for Kuwait.
However, it now appears that Korea is once more causing a headache to the rest of the shipbuilding nations. Although its tonnage on order is a great deal less than that of Japan's it is, a f t e r all, in second place in the order book league — a position it has held for the third consecutive year. Furthermore, in the first three months of this year it has been very successful in obtaining new orders, the value of which is reported to be a staggering 35 times more than those received during the corresponding period last year. But even more worrying for its near neighbors is that a large number of these orders are for sophisticated tonnage.
An example of this is the contract for four chemical tankers (with an option on two more) won by the new Daewoo shipyard.
This yard's order book also i n c l u d e s f i v e semisubmersible platforms — three for U.S. flag and two for U.K. — as well as a 140,000-dwt bulk coal carrier, two 150,000-dwt OBO carriers, and a 125,000-dwt tanker.
It is interesting to note that British consultants A & P Appledore and Det norske Veritas will jointly provide operational and completion assistance to the Daewoo yard, which was built to a design developed by A & P Appledore.
It may be recalled that these consultants were responsible for Korea's leading shipyard, Hyundai Heavy Industries, which commenced operations in 1974.
Hyundai has already delivered some 120 ships and its current order book, stretching through to 1983, must be the envy of many other yards throughout the world.
Bulk carriers predominate with many of them for service under the British flag and others for Norway, although, as might be expected, the Liberian flag has the leading share.
Korea's third largest yard is Korea Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, whose order book is composed mostlv of tankers in the 20,000-60,000-dwt range, including a number of chemical and product tankers. Next in size is Samsung Shipbuilding. In addition there are a number of smaller yards. Korea has been singularly successful in obtaining a high percentage of export orders, but the Government is also keen to see its own national flag fleet expanded in order to secure a greater share of its trade. As a consequence, most of the yards' order books are punctuated with domestic orders. Expectations are that Korea's national shipbuilding capacity will, by 1986, have grown to reach 6.5 million grt, which is nearly 50 times that existing in 1971.
CHINA A look at the order books of the Chinese yards reveal t h a t this country, too, is achieving some measure of success in Europe with contracts from owners in Germany and Norway. Other export ships will fly the flags of Liberia and Panama. As for its domestic fleet, a number of vessels are on order but it should be recalled that in the past three years or so China has built up her merchant fleet by the acquisition of good quality secondhand tonnage.
China is now seeking to import shipbuilding technology and is currently upgrading the building facilities at a number of yards.
At the Jiangnan Shipyard, Shanghai, for example, two 7,000-toncapacity slips are being rebuilt to form one of 60,000 tons capacity.
In addition, the yard has five other building slipways, one for ships of up to 27,000 dwt, three for vessels of up to 7,000 dwt, and the sixth for those of the 1,000-dwt category.
Also in Shanghai is the floating shipyard for which future development expansion is being considered. This story can be repeated for many other yards throughout the country, and it is certain that in the future many of these will be seeking export orders. When one takes the vast potential of this nation into account, clearly the prospects of China becoming a net exporter of ships cannot be ignored.
TAIWAN Another country to increase its order book in recent months is Taiwan, whose China Shipbuilding Corporation (CSBC) has yards at Keelung and Kaohsiung. Again, domestic owners account for a fair proportion of the work in hand. There is also a national shipbuilding program accounting for 28 full containerships, 10 Panamax-type bulk carriers, and two tankers, all of which are to be built in three years from July 1980 to June 1983.
Built in 1975, the Kaohsiung yard has a building dock capable of constructing ships of up to 1,000,000 dwt. The Keelung yard's facilities include a 100,000- dwt capacity building dock and a 30,000-ton building berth, as well as repair docks. It is understood that CSBC is looking to the construction of highly specialized and sophisticated ships, such as LNGs, LPGs, etc., in the future.
So f a r as the rest of Southeast Asian shipbuilding countries are concerned, Singapore is perhaps best known for its highly successful ship repairing activities.
However, there are a number of yards such as Promet and Far East-Levingston that have good order books for small, specialized craft in the form of supply ships, tugs, etc., as well as offshore rigs.
Across the causeway, efforts are being made to increase Malaysia's shipbuilding capability, though it looks as if this count ry will remain an importer of tonnage for some time to come as newbuildings are likely to be restricted to coastal vessels. On the other hand, the Labuan yard of Sabah Shipbuilding and Repairing is currently expanding its facilities.
In the jump from Southeast Asia to Europe, we pass over countries such as India whose yards are building for domestic owners.
SPAIN Although Spain clearly leads Europe with the amount of tonnage on order, a very high proportion of this is for account of domestic owners. Spanish shipowners are not encouraged to build abroad and the selected subsidy program, together with a home credit scheme, are an added incentive. The country has recently attracted an increased number of export orders, but as stated earlier in this article a reduction in capacity is currently under review. According to Lloyd's Register, tonnage completed in Spanish yards last year was only a quarter of the figure returned in 1975. It could be that this decline in productivity explains why Spanish yards have so far been able to avoid the severe cutbacks experienced by other countries.
FRANCE One of the leading European nations with regard to investment in shipbuilding facilities — the yards at Saint Nazaire and La Ciotat are outstanding examples —France has had to cut back its activities to more than half its peak level. But in this case these figures can be misleading because French yards have for some time been building highly specialized ships, particularly gas carriers, in which there is a high work content; much of the current order book is made up of such sophisticated tonnage. A considerable increase in newbuildings ordered by French owners last year helped French yards inasmuch as they received the bulk of the ships — four containerships, four RO/ROs, two LPG carriers, and a passenger ship — and the bulk of the value, but four ships, totaling over 440,000 dwt, went elsewhere.
WEST GERMANY Most of the major German yards are having a lean time, although some have received naval contracts and others are engaged in offshore activities. An indication of the overall situation can be judged from Howaldtswerke Deutsche Werft whose recently released annual report cited the newbuilding sector as the primary cause of undisclosed losses. However, its chairman, Dr. Norbert Henke, said that it is possible to look ahead with cautious optimism as long as the gradual improvement in the shipbuilding industry continues without any m a j o r s e t b a c k s . He strongly urged that the West German Government continues its aid to the industry and added "it would be a gross mistake to stop this aid." Despite HDW's diversification into other non-marine fields, it has reduced its number of employees by 3,400 since 1975 and f u r t h e r reductions are planned.
Dr. Henke contends that the future of West Germany's shipbuilding industry lies primarily in the construction of specialized vessels and progressive exploitation of advanced technology.
UNITED KINGDOM The United Kingdom's shipbuilding industry is still being cut back, and in recent weeks there has been a considerable difference of opinion between the unions and the nationalized corporation, B r i t i s h Shipbuilders.
The problem is that a further 2,600 redundancies were required and while 2,000 workers volunteered for this, lay-off notices were served on the remainder.
The corporation has to date enjoyed much support and cooperation from the unions, but both sides appear to have a tough line over this latest move.
Last year, the corporation introduced a family of designs and more recently has decided to develop and market a range of liquefied gas carrier designs. In the meantime, its warship builders are doing well, and there has been much s p e c u l a t i o n about some of them being sold back to private enterprise. This seems unlikely — BS has itself denied such a move — as the corporation would lose money at an even higher rate than currently. Also looking on the bright side, Austin & Pickersgill, one of the few yards doing well prior to nationalization, is still maintaining a good order book for its SD 15 cargo ships and bulk carriers.
Clearly though, the Thatcher government will have to find some way of f u r t h e r supporting the industry — after taking office it gave BS support for two years while restructuring took place and its capacity was reduced by one-third — otherwise there will be more unemployment in areas that already have been hard hit.
SCANDINAVIA In Norway, as in the United Kingdom, a shipyard employment has been drastically reduced and for many shipbuilders it has been a question of survival. Many have no doubt been saved by offshorerelated work. Norway's problem stems from the high cost of production compared with some other countries, and thus under normal circumstances the yards are u n a b l e to compete. However, there are several aid schemes that allow shipbuilders to compete more effectively for orders with subsidized yards in other countries.
Sweden's shipbuilders, which come under Swedyards, the stateowned i n d u s t r i a l and marine group, have suffered considerably as a result of the recession, particularly with regard to large tanker construction that accounted for much of the tonnage built during the early to mid-1970s.
Nevertheless, yards have diversified both with regard to the types of ships built and also into other areas.
Denmark, similarly, has had to make cutbacks in its labor force.
The current order book shows a large proportion of ships under construction for domestic owners.
Most fortunate of the North European countries is Finland.
The various yard order books reveal a very high percentage of ships to be building for the Soviet Union, a result of bilateral agreements between these two countries.
Before leaving Europe, mention must be made of the Polish industry, which is currently attracting considerable attention though not on account of its order books.
What effect the political situation will have on its shipyards remains to be seen. Other European countries— Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands— have all been adversely affected by the recession in varying degrees, and it seems as if the contraction of European shipbuilding is not finished yet.
Despite the foregoing, however, London shipbrokers Eggar Forrester report that orders for new tonnage continue at a pace which may eventually lead the industry into one of its regular cycles of over-supply. That the majority of bulk tonnage orders has been going to the East was a subject of some recrimination at a recent OECD meeting. But European yards hold larger orders for the more sophisticated types of ships, and Spain has recently won a number of contracts especially for bulk carriers in the region of 30,000 dwt.
With many yards holding full order books for 1983, few early berths are available: the U.K. is one exception here, and a weaker pound and good credit arrangements may also be attractive.
In summing up the world shipbuilding situation, the concentration of yards in Southeast Asia is unmistakable. Despite modern technology, shipbuilding is, always has been, and always will be, a labor-intensive industry and, logically, if labor costs are cheap then ships will be inexpensive.
Advances in the industry apply to all countries, with lowlabor- cost areas able to take the same advantages as their longerestablished c o u n t e r p a r t s elsewhere ; the Southeast Asia yards are among the most modern in the world.
It should also be realized that shipping is a competitive business and shipowners do not owe shipbuilders a living. Free of restrictions as to where he should build, the shipowner would naturally opt for the yard, in whatever country, that could offer him the lowest price coupled, of course, with the quality and delivery dates he requires. It follows, therefore, that to maintain a strategic level of indigenous shipbuilding capacity, many governments will have to provide more incentives to their native shipowners to build in their native yards.
Perhaps the other alternative, discussed in London at the International Marine Industries Forum in March, is to undertake a policy of "scrap and build" and, in so doing, remove less efficient ships while giving a steady base load to shipyards.
Other stories from June 1981 issue
- SPC Coatings Combat Rising Fuel Costs- Literature Available page: 5
- Ryan-Walsh Bulk Terminal In New Orleans Resumes Coal-Handling Operations page: 5
- Brochure Available On Gilkes Self-Priming Pumps For Marine Market page: 6
- Henschel Changes Name Of Its Oklahoma Unit To Tulsa Division page: 6
- Atlantic Marine To Build Cat-Powered Drill Barge For Mecom Company page: 6
- National Marine Service Adds Sixth Drydock At Its Harvey Shipyard page: 6
- General Ship Expands Its Facilities In South Boston page: 6
- Floating Doughnut Crane Shown At Shugart Crane Conference page: 7
- EMD-Powered 'Gulf Condor' Delivered By Quality Shipyards page: 8
- RCA Opens Marine Services Office In Morgan City, La. page: 8
- Hans Schaefer Succeeds Arthur Stout As President Of Todd Shipyards page: 8
- FELS To Construct Semisubmersible Rig For Western Company page: 9
- David Parrot To Head New Aldenships Division Of John G. Alden Firm page: 9
- Edward Walsh Named Asst VP And Controller At J.J. Henry Company page: 9
- Oosterhuis Talk Describes Decline In Fuel Q u a l i t y - Free Copies Available page: 10
- Second Occidental Tug/Barge Unit Christened At Avondale Yard page: 10
- Megasystems To Provide Automation Package For Southern-Built Dredge page: 10
- Interlake's 'De Lancey' Christened- Longest Vessel On The Great Lakes page: 12
- Dravo Negotiating To Buy Operating Assets Of Nilo Barge Line From Olin page: 14
- Brochure Available On Foster Wheeler Boilers And Auxiliary Equipment page: 14
- A TIME OF GREAT EXPECTATIONS, ENTHUSIASM AND EXCITEMENT page: 15
- Vincent Ferraro Named Estimating VP For Savannah Shipyard page: 15
- Paceco Container Crane Arrives At Massport's Castle Island Terminal page: 15
- NASSCO Lays Keel Of First In Series Of Product Carriers For American Tankships page: 16
- Bay Shipbuilding Completes EMD-Powered Columbia Star page: 16
- Bryant Named Manager Of McGraw-Edison's New Marine Marketing Dept. page: 17
- Three New Technical Reports Available From Ship Structure Committee page: 17
- Penske Offers Brochure On Diesels/Gas Turbines For Marine/Offshore Power page: 18
- Subsidy Approved On USL Conversion Job To Cost $5.3 Million page: 18
- Consolidated Inland Opens East Division Office— R.R. Simms Named Manager page: 18
- El Paso Promotes Three- Harry Ray Named VP Of El Paso Marine page: 18
- MOBILE JACKUP PLATFORMSPAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE page: 19
- Serrie Joins Levingston As VP Of Operations page: 19
- lotron Conducts ARPA Demonstration In New York City page: 20
- First Of Five Hydrofoil Combatants Launched By Boeing Marine Systems page: 20
- ALL INDICATORS POINT TO DRAMATIC INCREASE IN DEMAND FOR BARGE CAPACITY page: 22
- Levingston Reorganized— Barrios, Covington And Wise To Head Three Units page: 22
- B IW Awarded $247-Million Navy Contract To Build Three Missile Frigates page: 24
- North Florida Shipyards Appoints Three—White Named Production Manager page: 25
- Captain Barry Roberts Named CO Of USCG's Curtis Bay Shipyard page: 25
- James Retert Joins Waukesha Engine As Director Of Marketing page: 27
- New U.S. Built Coal-Fired Ship To Be Powered By G.E. Steam Turbine page: 27
- Wasacz Succeeds Gray As President Of Matson Navigation page: 28
- Bel-Aire Yard To Build Two Tuna Seiners At Total Cost Of $20 Million page: 29
- AWO'S AMERICAN WATERWAYS SHIPYARD CONFERENCE IS SHAPING POLICY FOR LONG-TERM GROWTH page: 33
- Washburn & Doughty Delivers Combination Scalloper-Dragger page: 34
- GE-Powered Product Carrier For Union Oil Christened At NASSCO page: 34
- South Jersey Port Orders Heavy Duty Multi-Purpose Crane From Kocks page: 35
- U.S. NAVY - A MORE POWERFUL FUTURE page: 39
- RORO81 PREVIEW page: 39
- First Of Three Waterman Combination Carriers Features Largest MacGregor Stern Ramp page: 40
- OFFSHORE DRILLING RIGS, SUPPORT VESSELS, NAVY SHIPS, INLAND BARGES, AND REPAIR WORK BRIGHTEN THE U.S. PICTURE page: 41
- Canadian Yards And Government Speed Up Shipbuilding Training page: 41
- EDO Gets $3.9-Million Navy Award To Improve Existing ASW System page: 42
- Barber Steamship Lines Names Steven Roberts Assistant Vice President page: 43
- Navy Awards $276-Million Contract To Todd For Three Additional FFGs page: 43
- Promet Gets $60-Million Order For Drill Rig For Sedco Incorporated page: 44
- A VIEW OF WORLDWIDE SHIPBUILDING REVEALS SIGNS OF REVIVAL IN SOME SECTORS page: 45
- CANADIAN EAST COAST OFFSHORE SERVICE VESSELS-EXPERIENCES AND PROBABLE FUTURE REQUIREMENTS page: 50
- CANADA'S EAST COAST OFFSHORE OIL POTENTIALOPPORTUNITIES FOR SHIPBUILDING page: 52
- First Aegis Missile Cruiser Christened At Ingalls Yard page: 58
- Blount Delivers Commuter Boat To Fire Island Ferries page: 58
- Promet Private Limited Completes Jackup Service Barge For Sun Contractors page: 60
- Cornelsen Named Manager- Technical Operations For Well Control Systems page: 60
- Northern New England ASNE Holds Joint Meeting With NCAA & NANTS page: 64
- 'Griffin-Alexander I' Now In Service- First Of Eight Costing $280 Million page: 66
- SNAME Philadelphia Section Hears Report On Stack Performance page: 66
- Captain Sandberg Honored At New York Section SNAME Meeting page: 66
- Smit International Performs Tow Of Huge Production Platform page: 70
- Jackup For Houston Offshore Commissioned At Bethlehem Yard page: 70
- Joe B. Foster Named An Executive Vice President Of Tenneco Inc. page: 71
- New Booklet Lists Oil Spill Prevention And Cleanup Organizations page: 74
- New Brochure Describes Goodway's Full Line Of Tube Cleaning Equipment page: 74
- New Armco Weld Wire Accepted By U.S. Navy —Literature Available page: 77
- New Brochure Describes Sewage Treatment Plants From Weir Pumps Limited page: 78
- J.D. Cain Appointed A Division Manager For Racal-Decca Survey page: 79
- Wilson Walton Develops New Marine Incinerator —Literature Available page: 79
- DCC Orders Satellite Ground Equipment From Scientific-Atlanta page: 80
- Charles Orem, President Of Bird-Johnson, Named Chief Executive Officer page: 80
- J.P. Elverdin Appointed Vice President-Shipping For United States Steel page: 81
- Uniroyal Collapsible Rubber Drums Are Rugged —Literature Available page: 81
- Student Paper Presented At SNAME Northern California page: 82
- Catalog Detailing Its Full Line Of Products Available From Kraissl page: 82
- Ordering Brisk At Dravo, Including Four Towboats At Cost Of $16 Million page: 84
- N.A. DiRenzo To Head New Philadelphia Office Of Designers & Planners page: 84
- Western Gear Awarded $1.5-Million Contract For Six Drilling Rig Drives page: 84
- Jan van Lier Named A Vice President Of Moore McCormack Resources page: 85
- Student Papers Presented At Los Angeles SNAME page: 85
- Sedco Jackup Drilling Rig Christened At Promet Yard page: 86
- Detroit-Powered Towboat Delivered To FOSTI By Orange Shipbuilding page: 86
- W.L. Kwitchoff Named VP-General Superintendent At Savannah Shipyard page: 87
- Lunceford Elected Board Chairman And President Of National River Academy page: 87
- Vu-Gctge Systems Ordered By NASSCO For Tankers page: 88
- Wood Elected President Of Northwest Towboat Association, Seattle page: 88
- R.E. Fisher Appointed VP-Marine Services At SeaTec International page: 88
- DEBEG Marine Opens New U.S. Headquarters page: 89
- Hampton Roads SNAME Meeting Featured Sailing Film-Narration page: 91
- Puget Sound ASNE Hears Firsthand Account Of 'Prinzendam' Incident page: 92
- Rivtow Straits Orders EMD-Powered Tugboat From John Manly Yard page: 92
- Fred Shumaker Joins McClure Associates As Vice President page: 92
- Sun Transport's Latest Carrier Has Many Advanced Features page: 93
- Albert Termo Named VP-Marketing And Planning At Universal Maritime page: 94
- Norshipco Names New Officers—Wesley Payne Promoted To Senior VP page: 94
- Yugoslav Shipyards Licensed To Build Rigs Designed By Levingston page: 95
- Walter Beam Named Vice President-Research And Development At Sperry page: 95
- Brochure Available On O i l / W a t e r Emulsifier From Cleanodan A/S page: 97
- Levingston To Build Rig For Mexican Owner At its Port Arthur Division page: 97
- $1.2-Million In Marisat Terminal Contracts Goes To Scientific-Atlanta page: 98
- Madeo Appointed Vice President-Operations For Ocean Salvors page: 98
- Riva Schwartz Promoted To Sales Manager For Simrad, Inc. page: 100
- $622,500 Contract For Atlantic Marine Yard Authorized By MSB page: 100
- New Brochure Describes High-Level Tanker Alarm With Automatic Shutdown page: 100
- Marinette Marine Awarded $1-Million Navy Contract For MCM Evaluation page: 102
- Forthofer And Reardon Named Vice Presidents For Perry Oceanographies page: 102
- Hitachi To Supply Four B&W Type Marine Diesels To People's Republic page: 103
- Hermann Helms Named VP-International For Lykes Bros. Steamship page: 103
- Reception Honors Wheeler's Appointment As Exclusive Agent For Schelde Yard page: 104
- New Kawasaki Stern Bulb System Provided Impressive Fuel Savings On Trial Run page: 104
- Marine Moisture's Tank Gauging Meets IMCO Rules —Literature Available page: 105
- Orders For Vessels Built To American Bureau Class Surged In 1980 page: 107
- Matson Promotes Three- John Couch Appointed Senior Vice President page: 107
- Macawber To Prepare Coal-Handling Manual Under MarAd Contract page: 108
- Hartzell Marine Blowers Meet Federal Specs- Literature Available page: 108
- Rick Comoglio Appointed Sales Engineer For EG&G Sea-Link Systems page: 108
- Ingalls To Build Second Jackup For Bonito Offshore page: 109
- Drew Promotes Three In Ameroid Marine D i v i s i o n - Kay Named Vice President page: 109
- Big Living Quarters Module For North Sea Production Rig Delivered By Blohm + Voss Yard page: 110
- N a t i o n a l Supply Promotes Three In Sales—Petersen Named VP-Marketing page: 112
- Boston VLCC Companies Ask For Title XI Aid On Tanker Retrofits page: 115
- New Gems Flow Switches Designed For Heavy D u t y - Literature Available page: 115
- Selfbulk Vessel Provides Versatile Cargo-Handling System page: 116
- Bender Yard Awarded Contract To Re-power Towboat 'Great America' With S.E.M.T. Pielstick Engines page: 117
- Bayou Black Shipyard Delivers Crewboat And Pusher To Sundance page: 134
- Admiral John M. W i l l - Navy And Merchant Marine Leader-1900-1981 page: 134